There are two types of courts in the UAE, ie, federal (the Emirates of
Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Fujairah, Ajman, and Umm Al Quwain) and local (the
Emirates of Dubai and Ras Al Khaimah, which have retained their
independent judiciaries). Both federal and local courts comply with
the UAE Temporary Constitution of 1972. Both federal and local court
systems are composed of three levels, ie, courts of first instance,
courts of appeal, and the Federal High Court in Abu Dhabi or the Court
of Cassation in the Emirate of Dubai. In the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah,
the judiciary is of two levels only, ie, courts of first instance and
a court of appeal.
The Civil Procedure Act regulates the jurisdiction of the federal
courts, their formation, and level in the hierarchy. The Act is
applicable to all civil proceedings before the courts, ie, civil,
commercial, and personal. Although the courts in the Emirate of Dubai
are formed under and regulated by Act Number 3 of 1992, the Civil
Procedure Act has been adopted and enforced in Dubai pursuant to Act
Number 5 of 1992.
Conciliation and Arbitration
Rules of arbitration and conciliation in commercial matters have been
given by the Chambers of Commerce in each of the Emirates. An
arbitration award will be enforced by the relevant court of
jurisdiction for execution of judgments.